Real oil prices

Real vs. Nominal Values

It is useful to make the distinction between real and nominal values as these concepts are intrinsically related to inflation and used in the financial plans that we build at Exponeta Financial. In addition, these concepts are frequently encountered in economic and financial data sets. At a high level, nominal values include inflation, and real Read more about Real vs. Nominal Values[…]


In previous articles we traced the development of money from ancient barter systems to modern day fiat currency. One of the unavoidable realities of money throughout history is that as its supply increases, its value per unit decreases. This is the fundamental principle behind inflation which will be described in this article. Definition Inflation is Read more about Inflation[…]

The History of Money – Part V

In this series we have reviewed the development of money from barter systems to commodity money to bank notes and representative money. In this final entry, we will discuss modern day fiat currency. Definition A brief definition is in order before proceeding further: Fiat: a formal authorization or proposition; a decree an arbitrary order Origin: Read more about The History of Money – Part V[…]

The History of Money – Part IV

So far in this series we have traced the history of money from simple barter systems to commodity money. This article will discuss further advances to the monetary system such as paper money, trade bills, and banknotes. Paper Money The concept of paper money originated in the Song Dynasty in China in the 11th century, Read more about The History of Money – Part IV[…]

Fixed Income Options

In most investing literature, the fixed income component of a portfolio is assumed to take the form of bonds. For accounts that do not possess a sufficient net worth (for example more than $500,000), it is usually difficult to sufficiently diversify across various issuers of bonds, so many investors have turned bond funds for convenience. Read more about Fixed Income Options[…]

Tax Deductibility of Mortgage Interest

The biggest loan most of us will ever have is the mortgage. In the United States, interest on mortgage loans is tax deductible, but in Canada it is not. However, investment loans are tax deductible, and there are ways to take advantage of this. Read on for details… Interest on Investment Loans When the government Read more about Tax Deductibility of Mortgage Interest[…]

Are There Enough Investments for Everyone?

This post is of a more theoretical nature, rather than practical advice. Let us know in the comments or via e-mail if you would like more posts like this in the future. As the public becomes more financially educated, there is bound to be a greater amount of individual investment in the stock market. After Read more about Are There Enough Investments for Everyone?[…]